Indonesia was the fourth- largest producer of coffee in the world in 2014. Coffee cultivation in Indonesia began in the late 1600s and early 1700’s, in the early Dutch colonial period, and has played an important part in the growth of the country. Indonesia is geographically and climatologically well- suited for coffee plantations, near the equator and with numerous interior mountainous regions on its main islands, creating well- suited microclimates for the growth and production of coffee.
Indonesia produced an estimated 660,000 metric tons of coffee in 2017. Of this total, it is estimated that 154,800 tons were slated for domestic consumption in the 2013/ 2014 financial year. In general, Indonesia’s arabica coffee varieties have low acidity and strong bodies, which make them ideal for blending with higher- acidity coffees from Central America and East Africa.
The Cooperative Cafe Timor (CCT) works with very small farms in East Timor. The majority of land owners own less than a hectare of land. The CCT was established in 1994 with the help of the USDA and NCBA. and in 2001, the cooperative obtained Fair Trade certification. The farms are located in Maubesse, an area of high altitude and a sub- district in the Ainaro district; Atsabe, in the Ermera district; the Lequisa district; and the Aifu region. The coffee from East Timor was originally planted over 400 years ago by Portuguese colonist. However, after an epidemic of coffee leaf rust, the replanting of plants occurred and led to the creation of a new coffee varietal of Hibrido de Timor.